2018年4月19日 星期四

The Post-World War II Order Is Under Assault From the Powers That Built It 強權破壞自己打造的戰後秩序

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2018/04/20 第212期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
編輯小語 The Post-World War II Order Is Under Assault From the Powers That Built It 強權破壞自己打造的戰後秩序
All Roads Lead to Rome, Where Potholes Will Destroy Your Tires 條條大路通羅馬 小心到了以後會爆胎
The Post-World War II Order Is Under Assault From the Powers That Built It 強權破壞自己打造的戰後秩序
文/Peter S. Goodman

History was not supposed to turn out this way.

In the aftermath of World War II, the victorious Western countries forged institutions — NATO, the European Union, and the World Trade Organization — that aimed to keep the peace through collective military might and shared prosperity. They promoted democratic ideals and international trade while investing in the notion that coalitions were the antidote to destructive nationalism.



But now the model that has dominated geopolitical affairs for more than 70 years appears increasingly fragile. Its tenets are being challenged by a surge of nationalism and its institutions under assault from some of the very powers that constructed them — not least, the United States under President Donald Trump.

In place of shared approaches to societal problems — from trade disputes, to security, to climate change — national interests have captured primacy. The language of multilateral cooperation has been drowned out by angry appeals to tribal solidarity, tendencies that are heightened by economic anxieties.



"What we've seen is a kind of backlash to liberal democracy," said Amandine Crespy, a political scientist at Free University Brussels (ULB) in Belgium. "Masses of people feel they have not been properly represented in liberal democracy."

Within a White House roiled by tumult, recent weeks have demonstrated that the nationalists have seized the upper hand from their few globalist peers. Gary Cohn, the Goldman Sachs alumnus who advised Trump on economic policy, has departed. Peter Navarro, the stridently anti-China trade adviser, has gained influence. Since then, Trump has antagonized core allies with tariffs on steel and aluminum while raising the specter of a trade war with China.



But the United States is far from the only power tearing at the foundations of the postwar order.

Britain is abandoning the European Union, turning its back on the project whose very existence is an expression of faith that integration discourages hostilities. Italy just elevated two populist political parties that nurse historical animosities against the bloc.

Poland and Hungary, once viewed as triumphs of democracy flowering in post-Soviet soil, have shackled the media, cracked down on public gatherings, and attacked the independence of their court systems.







簡而言之,民族主義意指以民族認同為基礎的政治理念,「民族」的範圍必須經過界定。以美國而言,川普喊出的「美國優先」(America First)口號可視為民族主義的一種,相較於他國,川普將美國視為一個整體民族,政策上考慮民族利益勝於平等互惠或多邊合作,是以有先前的鋼鋁重課關稅,以及最近的三○一制裁。



文章開頭提到西方國家重建二戰後的世界秩序,文中有許多詞用來表達「團結」或「合作」的概念,包括collective(集合的、共同的)、coalition(聯合、結盟)、multilateral cooperation(多邊合作)、allies(盟友,ally的複數形)及integration(統一、整合)等。

All Roads Lead to Rome, Where Potholes Will Destroy Your Tires 條條大路通羅馬 小心到了以後會爆胎
文/Jason Horowitz

On a rainy Sunday morning, Cristiano Davoli stopped traffic and rushed into the middle of the street to save the day.

The 45-year-old comic book salesman, wearing a Patch Me logo across his chest, emptied a bag of asphalt into a deep and perilous pothole. He beat the pitch down with the back of a shovel. He pounded it with his boots.



"That's called an emergency intervention," said Davoli, a vigilante hero in the battle against the voracious potholes that have opened across the city.

All roads may lead to Rome, but when you get here the mean streets and wrecked pavements will puncture your tires, break your axles, herniate your discs, and in one recent case, swallow your SUV whole.



A poisonous Roman cocktail of chronic mismanagement, corruption, bureaucracy, neglect, heavy traffic, rare snow and constant rain has turned Rome's roads into a modern ruin that has surpassed overflowing garbage, busted water pipes and striking bus drivers as the emblem of a degraded city in another decline.

First come the cracks, resembling spider webs. They give way to the grooved pattern of a dry desert floor. Ultimately gaping potholes open up. Camouflaged in a rainy March under cappuccino-colored puddles, they twist ankles, topple zigzagging scooters and turn car rides into brain-rattling off-road excursions.



"It's a disaster," said Davoli, who has made filling potholes his personal mission, risking fines for filling them in unauthorized areas. His appeals to volunteer citywide have been ignored by the mayor.

The city has closed streets and reduced the speed limit in many places to an ancient Roman crawl. The potholes have caused untold accidents, hours of traffic and windfalls for tire dealers. One pothole was credited with shredding the tires of 15 cars in under an hour.



The perpetually embattled mayor, Virginia Raggi, last month inaugurated a 17 million euro "Marshall Plan" (not to be confused with February's 90 million euro "Pothole Plan") to patch up 50,000 potholes a month. The city has unveiled its "Pothole Patching Machine," which it claims can fill 150 potholes a day. And prosecutors have opened a broad investigation to get to the bottom of the crackup.

Romans say the problem has never been this bad, but the Raggi administration, which has been in power for nearly two years, blames its predecessors. Margherita Gatta, the city's chief infrastructure official, said that the world's other cities had lots of potholes too, but that it was "normal that the capital makes news."


羅馬人說,爛路問題從沒像現在這麼糟,不過,上台近兩年的拉吉政府歸咎於前任者。羅馬負責基礎建設的首長瑪格麗塔.加塔說,世界上其他城市也有很多坑洞,而「羅馬的情況會成為新聞倒也不足為奇 」。


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