2019年9月23日 星期一

The Complex History of Meeting Your Exact Double 當你遇見你的分身


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The Complex History of Meeting Your Exact Double  當你遇見你的分身
Meeting one’s double—or doppelgänger—has a long and complex history.
遇見跟自己長得一模一樣的人──或是分身──有著一段很長且複雜的歷史。


    

  A doppelg?nger is supposed to be a person’s exact double. The word has been borrowed from German and is often translated as “double walker.” In the past, the appearance of a doppelg?nger was never good news, though.
  In traditional myths and legends, a doppelg?nger was a type of ghost or spirit. Seeing a doppelg?nger usually meant something bad would happen. In many legends, seeing one’s own double meant that death was near. In other stories, seeing someone else’s double meant something bad could happen to that person.
  Before the German word “doppelg?nger” became common, the English word “fetch” was used to describe seeing a spirit copy of one’s self. Other cultures also had their own words for a similar spirit or creature. In Egypt, it was called a ka, which was a spirit that had all the same memories as the person it copied. The ka could be found causing all kinds of trouble in folklore. In Norse and Finnish mythology, a similar being would appear to show people their near future. The doppelg?nger is also considered a version of the Ankou, a sign of death in Breton folklore. In all of these cultures’ legends, it was always a bad sign to see your doppelg?nger.

 

1. double n. 極相似的人;替身演員
Jason looks like Tom Cruise’s double. People on the street often ask him for a snap.
傑森跟湯姆•克魯斯長得超像。街上常有人找他合照。
* snap n. 快照
2. be supposed to V  應該做……
Ian was supposed to come to the party yesterday, but he never showed up.
伊恩應該來昨天的派對才對,但他都沒出現。
3. exact a. 一樣的;精確的
These two vases share the exact pattern of animals.
這兩只花瓶有同樣的動物圖樣。
4. borrow A from B  從 B 借用/引用 A
Ned borrowed his ideas from some of the most well-known movies in pop culture.
奈德的點子引用自流行文化中一些最有名的電影。
5. appearance [ J`pIrJns ] n. 出現,到來
The sudden appearance of that mean dog really scared Wendy.
那隻惡犬突然的出現真的嚇到溫蒂了。
6. copy n. 複製品;(相同印刷品的)一份 & vt. 複製;模仿
Can you send me a copy of that letter, please?
能請你寄給我一份那封信的副本嗎?
The little girl likes to copy the way her mother speaks.
這個小女孩喜歡模仿她媽媽說話的模樣。
7. similar a. 相/類似的
Parents from all walks of life have similar problems when it comes to raising children.
來自社會各階層的父母對養兒育女都有類似的問題。
8. creature n. 生物;怪物
No one in the town knew where this ugly creature came from.
鎮上沒有人知道這醜陋的生物從哪來的。

doppelgänger n. 分身;與某人外貌相同的人
myth n. 迷思;神話
legend n. 傳奇
folklore n. 民間傳說;民俗
mythology n. 神話(集)
version n. 版本

種種跡象
本文中的名詞 sign 指的並非常見的「標記;指示牌;信號」,而是表「(表某事屬實的)跡象,徵兆」。而 (star) sign 這個字也能表示「星座」的意思。例:
Crying is considered by some people to be a sign of weakness.
(哭泣被某些人視為軟弱的表現。)
In some cultures, seeing a black cat is a sign of bad luck.
(在某些文化中,看見黑貓被視為一個厄運的徵兆。)
Tracy always laughs at those who believe in star signs.
(崔西總是嘲笑那些相信星座的人。)

  分身應該是跟一個人像同個模子印出來的人。這個字是從德文借用而來的,而且常被譯為「雙重行者」。但是在過去,分身的出現卻從來不是個好消息。
  在傳統神話及傳說中,分身是一種鬼怪或是靈體。看到分身時通常表示有壞事要發生了。在許多傳說中,某人看到酷似自己的人意味著死期將近。在其他故事中,看到長得跟其他人一樣的人則表示可能有壞事要發生在那個人身上。
  在「doppelg?nger」這個德文單字變得普遍之前,英文裡「fetch」這個字就被用來描述一個人看到靈體翻版的自己(編按:此說法源自愛爾蘭民間傳說)。在其他文化中對於稱呼這一種類似的靈體或是生物也有自己的字詞。埃及稱它為「ka」,這是一種擁有與其複製的人完全相同記憶的靈體。在民間傳說中發現 ka 會引起各種的麻煩。在古斯堪地那維亞及芬蘭神話中,一種相似的生物會現身在人們面前並顯示他們不久後的未來。在布列塔尼民俗中,分身也被視為是一種「Ankou」 ── 一個死亡的徵兆(編按:Ankou 為一種似鬼怪的骷髏怪物,其職責為引領亡靈前往地獄)。在所有這些文化的傳說裡,看到你的分身總是一個壞兆頭。


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「介紹工作」不是introduce! 還能怎麼說?中文都指介紹,英文用詞其實分7種


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2019/09/30 第261期  |  訂閱/退訂  |  看歷史報份

「介紹工作」不是introduce還能怎麼說?中文都指介紹,英文用詞其實分7種

有些英文字很常見,幾乎天天用,但卻也常常錯而不自知。Introduce 就是這樣一個字。

Iris 不久前去見一位外國客戶,是朋友 Matt 介紹的,於是她說:
(X)“I was introduced by your friend Matt.”

後來想到這樣一開口文法就錯,Iris覺得自己真是不專業。一起來看看這個簡單容易錯,卻又不知道自己講錯了的字。

Introduce 當「介紹」,Cambridge字典裡的定義是"tell someone another ... ...

帶CEO們去一趟海洋「塑膠垃圾場」之旅

An Ocean Plastics Field Trip for Corporate Executives

你能想像製塑膠的工業大亨跟綠色和平組織的代表人尷尬地擠在一個狹小的船艙中嗎?新創SoulBuffalo專門做這種事。創辦人Ford相信,帶那些辦公室裡的CEO們出海一趟,對「減塑」將帶來極大幫助。 


Ford's company, SoulBuffalo, takes corporate executives on epic excursions (Antarctica, Kamchatka, Zimbabwe), smacks a little kumbaya into them, then sends them home fired up about corporate responsibility.
-
SoulBuffalo's previous expeditions have all been for small groups from single companies, but as the scope of the plastics crisis has unfolded (spoiler alert: it's worse than you can possibly imagine), Ford began to wonder if a big, boundary-crossing, experiential intervention could turn the tide. "I've always believed that travel can capture magic in a bottle," he says. "You know how when you travel with people, your relationship can advance years in a matter of days? That's what needs to happen out here."
-
Quarters are tight. Unless you're willing to pay $25,000 for a private stateroom (which a few of the bigwigs are), everyone has to share cabins, and one of the assignments is dropping jaws: the reps from Greenpeace and Nestlé Waters—which have been at war for the past month, after Greenpeace launched a campaign against the bottled-water giant—are bunking in a cramped stateroom with beds three feet apart, at Nestlé Waters' request. ("Haha," Ford initially wrote back. "Very funny.")

完整原文:Outside
閱讀時間:24min

關鍵單字

Kumbaya 《歡聚一堂》(歌名)

Kumbaya一詞是英語"Come by here"的諧音。Kumbaya 來自1920年代的美國黑人基督教歌曲。到了50年代成為美國人露營的愛唱歌單,表達出朋友們一同歡唱的和氣和歡樂氣氛。輾轉到現代,這個詞的定義已經轉變,Kumbaya在美國政治話術中指的是「嘲諷」,常被政客用來表達對特定和氣場面的鄙夷不屑。

turn the tide 翻轉情勢

tide 指的是「潮汐、潮水」,這裡衍生為「趨勢、情勢」的意思,因此 turn the tide 在說「翻轉情勢」,後面常會接 against 加上對抗的對象或扭轉的事件。

例句:The president claimed that the government was turning the tide in the war against drugs.
          總統宣稱政府扭轉了掃毒戰的情勢。

capture magic in a bottle 完成困難的事情、達成某項壯舉

本文中版本經過說話者的變動,片語原來應為 "capture lightening in a battle",為美式片語,字面的意思是將光捕捉到瓶子中,衍生的意思則是指「去完成艱難或很難成功的事情」。


編輯/ 英語島編輯室

本文收錄於英語島English Island 2019年9月號
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