2022年5月12日 星期四

Hard Questions From Students Across Europe 歐洲教師很難向學生解釋俄烏戰爭

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2022/05/13 第382期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 Hard Questions From Students Across Europe 歐洲教師很難向學生解釋俄烏戰爭
A Gathering Will Explore Literary Rebukes to Turmoil and Brutality 探索戰亂年代的文學角色
Hard Questions From Students Across Europe 歐洲教師很難向學生解釋俄烏戰爭
文/Emma Bubola


As they returned from playing tag at recess on a recent sunny morning, the red-cheeked children had lots of questions.


"Russia is big enough; why does he want more land?" Max, 11, his eyes on an atlas, asked his teacher about President Vladimir Putin of Russia.


Jessica, 11, stood with a knee on her chair. "Why are most crazy people men?" she wondered.


Issy, 11, turned to the teacher: "Would you stay and fight for your country?"


Tara Harmer, a teacher of 36 years, paused to think. "It's a difficult one, isn't it?" she said in her elementary school classroom in Horsham, a town in southern England. "My instinct would be to protect you," she reasoned. "Yes, I think I would fight for my country."


As Europeans have grappled with the shock of facing a war on their doorstep and a frenzied news cycle, many teachers have had little time to process what was happening; they had to provide answers, and fast.


"I have had 100 questions," said Sandro Pellicciotta, who teaches geography at a high school in the northern Italian city of Bologna. "And to be honest, I am quite afraid of saying some nonsense."


Schoolchildren today were born long after the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s, and some were toddlers when the war in Syria was at its height. No conflict they are old enough to remember has been so widely displayed on their TikTok feeds as the war in Ukraine, or so close to home.


The distance between their world and that of geopolitics has telescoped, and teachers have struggled to assuage fears that this war might affect them all. After two years of a pandemic, they also say the war has undermined their efforts to convince children that the world is not a hostile place.


Teachers across Europe described the challenges they were facing in the classroom and the questions they had been asked.


Governments around Europe have acknowledged the challenges that the war in Ukraine poses for teachers and have drafted guidelines for them.


In France, the government said teachers should explain the common history of Russia and Ukraine, but make clear that it "does not substantiate the thesis that Ukraine, a sovereign state, does not have the right to independence." According to the guidelines, teachers should also not insist on discussing the war if students are reluctant to do so.


A Gathering Will Explore Literary Rebukes to Turmoil and Brutality 探索戰亂年代的文學角色
文/Alexandra Alter


In 1939, American journalist Dorothy Thompson, who was expelled from Germany after reporting on the rise of the Nazi movement, convened an emergency summit of writers in response to the violence unfolding in Europe. As the leader of PEN America, a literary and free speech organization, Thompson called on writers to unite against fascism and threats to free expression. The event drew 500 writers from 30 countries.


"In much of the world today the word itself has been made captive,"Thompson told the assembled writers. "Those who would free it do so at the risk of their lives."


This spring, in response to the war in Ukraine, PEN America is holding another "Emergency World Voices Congress of Writers" inspired by that first gathering to explore how literature and literary figures can help bridge geographic and cultural rifts, encourage dialogue and protect free speech in times of turmoil and brutality.


The emergency summit — which is expected to include more than 100 writers, among them Salman Rushdie, Gary Shteyngart, Ayad Akhtar and Jennifer Egan — is part of PEN's annual World Voices Festival, a series of literary events scheduled to take place May 11-14 in New York City and Los Angeles.


"In this moment of chaos and violence, we can address what the role of the writer is, as we face down the rise of authoritarianism, disinformation run amok, social fissures that are widening here in this country, and a surge in book banning and threats against free speech," Suzanne Nossel, chief executive of PEN America, said.


On the same day as the summit, Ukrainian novelist Andrey Kurkov, who is the president of PEN Ukraine and has been documenting the grim toll of Russia's invasion, will deliver a speech that will address threats to democracy and free expression.


The World Voices Festival was created in 2005 with the aim of fostering dialogue among authors from around the world to counter isolationism and xenophobia in the United States after the Sept. 11 attacks.


In the years since, the annual event has drawn hundreds of international and American authors to discuss themes such as gender and power, political unrest and resistance, and threats to privacy and free speech.


Janie Seddon 學齡前的孩子主要透過親密照顧者來學習與成長,但到了一定年齡,漸漸需要增加與他人互動經驗、熟悉團體活動,為邁入小學生活做準備,這時,先讓孩子上幼兒園就成為重要的管道。若能於適合的年齡入學,並讓孩子事先具備6大基礎能力,孩子將能更快融入校園生活。

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